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Personal Tailor, Independent To Focus.


We provide thoughtful design consulting services, 

customized to meet your unique requirements.

Keeping independence and objectivity is our moral character.

Profession and Concentration are our competitiveness.

For Light
"Regardless of Prometheus' theft of fire in Greek mythology, or China's antiquities in antiquity, people's exploration and pursuit of fire and light is how much persistence and excitement. Looking at the history of the development of building exterior materials, maybe only the glass can be realized.



Glass origin

To date, we have still not been able to determine the exact time and location of the world’s first glass invention. It is generally believed that glass was born in the Mesopotamian Plain about 5,000 years ago and was later spread throughout the world through Arabia.
In the 5th century BC, the presence of glass could already be found in Mesopotamia (named the two river basins Euphrates and Tigris, meaning between two rivers, roughly in present-day Iraq) evidence of. In the 4th century BC, when the Pharaoh Mausoleum was opened in Egypt, a green and lustrous glass rosary around 3500 BC was discovered, marking the beginning of glass-making techniques. By 1500 BC, pressed and molded glassware had become quite common in Egypt, and glass-making techniques have spread to modern Venice and Hall of Austria.




2. Development stage of glass manufacturing technology

Early stage
The influence of Syrians on the development of glass manufacturing technology cannot be underestimated. As early as around 200 BC, Sidon’s Syrian craftsmen invented the technique of blowing glass from iron pipes, making it possible to produce thin-walled containers of various shapes. This is the early stage of glass manufacturing technology – - Blowing technology (Fig. 1): The glass blower draws the glass liquid from the end of a hollow iron rod with a length of about 1.5 m and blows it into a thin-walled container. Compared with the previous casting method, glass has a significant improvement in thickness and light transmission.

In the 8th century AD, Syria’s rotating disk production proved to have played an extremely important role in the development of the northern glass manufacturing industry. Around 1000 AD, the Venetian people have used the rotating method to produce uneven-thick flat glass. The Nordic producers perfectly integrated the two kinds of blowing and spinning technologies and established a considerable scale of glass industry. This creation ushered in the era of Gothic architecture.

Industrialization period
In the nineteenth century, in the European period of industrialization, glass production made important progress in all fields:
a. In 1839, the Chance brothers successfully improved the cutting, grinding and polishing of the blown cylindrical glass, improved the surface polishing process, reduced the glass breakage, and improved the production efficiency, so as to be short in 1850 to 1851. A large number of flat glass for the construction of the Crystal Palace in the UK in a few months;
b. In 1856 Friedrich Siemens improved the patent of the furnace, making the operation flow more reasonable and the fuel halved, and the glass price dropped significantly;

c. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, John H. Lubbers of the United States developed a mechanical process that combines the two methods of blowing and drawing to produce 12 meters in length and diameter. 800mm glass.


20th century
In 1902, Emile Fourcault succeeded in inventing a process (vertical method) for directly drawing a glass melt, and the appearance of a machine producing a bright glass plate;
In 1906, Libbey Owens invented the horizontal glass production process: slowly using a polished nickel alloy roller to pull the glass melt into a horizontal plane and cool it to a hand in a 60-meter-long cooling trough The temperature that can be reached, then cut to size. This provides an important theoretical and practical basis for the production of stretch float glass.
Glass is used in a large number of buildings and is closely related to the two basic conditions in the middle of the 20th century:
Premise I: Saint-Gobain, France, used patents obtained by Edward Benediktys in 1909 to manufacture laminated glass; and since 1929, it has been practiced using pre-pressed glass methods to form tough Safety glass.
Premise 2: In 1955, Sir Alastair Pikington invented the float process: the molten glass floats on the surface of the tin liquid to form a flat glass plate. This method is revolutionary in manufacturing high-quality large-size glass.
Milan cathedral 米兰大教堂
3. Important stages of development of glass applications
Archaeological discoveries show that for the first time, glass was applied to building envelopes in Roman villas and public bathrooms in Pompei and Herculaneum. Some of these glass panels are frameless, and some are placed in steel frames or wooden frames. The dimensions are approximately 300 mm x 500 mm and the thickness is between 30 and 60 mm. These windows were produced by casting using a glass panel: the viscous liquid was first poured onto a framed table topped with sand, and then stretched using a hook.
Gothic architecture period
The period of Nordic Gothic architecture was the first real era of glass architecture. The most obvious architectural style was the towering spires and the huge glass paintings on the windows. The Cathedral of Christ was the representative of Gothic architecture. 2). Gothic architecture has a more unified basic features: stone frame, buttress, vault and stained glass. In Gothic architecture, there are only pressures in the stone framework, and the situation of material tension rarely occurs; domes and buttresses give people new feelings about the annular space; huge glass windows are all assembled, small pieces of Glass sashes made of metal combine them to form a stained glass wall. The sun shines through the window's stained glass into the house, which is sacred and beautiful. The glass window becomes a filter between the inside and the outside, God and man. The window glass creates a mystical and splendid view of the interior of the church, which changes the feeling of boring and depressed building due to lack of lighting, and expresses people's inner ideals of yearning for heaven.
Church window 教堂花窗
Locke construction period
Baroque architecture is concerned with the rhythm of space and vivid images and can be extended to infinity. Light plays a very special role in this regard. The bright sunlight that enters through the openings of the spacious windows and doors replaced the mysterious light sources scattered in the Gothic church. Light not only creates space, but also serves as a means to cancel the boundaries of space. Space has lost its material characteristics: it has removed space restrictions, used to separate internal and external thick walls disappearing into the background, and the walls have become large continuous metal frames that integrate buildings with nature, interior and exterior . These results show that Baroque architecture will gain more and more significance. The increasing trend of open architecture will lead to a huge demand for glass will inevitably promote the progress of glass manufacturing technology.
It is worth noting that, during the British Tudor building, the architects of the Hardwick office (pictured) and the Worksop architecture (pictured) designed by architect Robert Smithson were the first to have more glass than walls. "The building" has a very high proportion of windows on the façade of the building. Most of the main façade is made up of huge glass windows. The huge glass windows are divided into several pieces by light stone windows. The glazing profiles are both flat and curved, and most glazings do not have visible support members.​
San Carlo Church with its spacious windows 圣卡罗教堂及其宽敞的窗户




Hardwick Office 哈德维克办公厅
Worksore House 沃克索普宅邸
Greenhouse construction period
The development of greenhouse construction lasted from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century. It occupied an important position in the history of architectural development. It does not have any traces of Greek architecture or Gothic architecture. Lawton's Encyclopedia of Cottages, Farms, and Villa Buildings, published in 1832, describes the key elements of greenhouse architectural design principles as follows: In addition to the ordinary wrought iron slats, there are no other masters in the greenhouse. The second beam reinforces the roof. Before the glass is installed, a slight breeze shakes the whole structure from head to foot. Once the glass is installed, the entire building becomes strong enough. From this it can be seen that the seemingly fragile transparent glass panel is actually an important force element that enhances the rigidity and stability of the entire structure.
In the history of architecture development, the Crystal Palace (Cystal Palace), designed by Joseph Paxton and built in Hyde Park in London in 1851, occupies a central position, showing the advanced thinking of architectural forms and styles.
British Crystal Palace 英国水晶宫
Enlightenment Application of Industrial or Commercial Buildings
Since the mid-19th century, commercial arcades have become increasingly popular: it does not have the interior of a glass-roofed building, it is actually a shaded interior street, and along both sides of the street are the commercial facades of real buildings. A glass roof made of a wonderful combination of glass and steel protects people from wind and rain. Vittorio Emanuele II, designed and built by Giuseppe Mengoni in 1861 between 1865 and 1877, was the ancestor of the modern sealed glass shopping center. Fig. 9), which was designed using popular shopping malls in the 19th century. The top is covered with arched glass and cast iron roofs. The corridors of two glass domes meet in the octagonal space in the middle.
Vittorio Manuele II Corridor 维多利奥·玛努埃莱二世街廊