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About Rinro​    关于凝龙 

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For Light
"Regardless of Prometheus' theft of fire in Greek mythology, or China's antiquities in antiquity, people's exploration and pursuit of fire and light is how much persistence and excitement. Looking at the history of the development of building exterior materials, maybe only the glass can be realized.

“无论希腊神话中的普罗米修斯盗火,亦或中国上古时代的夸父逐日,人类对火与光的探索与追求是多少地执着与奋不顾身;

纵览建筑外墙材料的发展史,恐怕能够实现人类的愿望就只有玻璃了。”

Glass origin

To date, we have still not been able to determine the exact time and location of the world’s first glass invention. It is generally believed that glass was born in the Mesopotamian Plain about 5,000 years ago and was later spread throughout the world through Arabia.
In the 5th century BC, the presence of glass could already be found in Mesopotamia (named the two river basins Euphrates and Tigris, meaning between two rivers, roughly in present-day Iraq) evidence of. In the 4th century BC, when the Pharaoh Mausoleum was opened in Egypt, a green and lustrous glass rosary around 3500 BC was discovered, marking the beginning of glass-making techniques. By 1500 BC, pressed and molded glassware had become quite common in Egypt, and glass-making techniques have spread to modern Venice and Hall of Austria.

1.玻璃起源

迄今为止,我们仍然无法确定世界上第一块玻璃发明的具体时间和地点。一般认为,玻璃诞生于大约5000年前的美索不达米亚平原,随后经过阿拉伯传播到了世界各地。

公元前5世纪,在美索不达米亚(Mesopotamia)地区(对幼发拉底河和底格里斯河两河流域的称谓,意为两条河之间的地方,大体位于现今的伊拉克),已经可以找到玻璃存在的证据。公元前4世纪,在埃及法老陵墓打开时发现了公元前3500年前左右的绿莹莹的玻璃念珠,这标志着玻璃制造技术的开端。到公元前1500年,压制和模制的玻璃器皿在埃及已经相当普遍,并且玻璃制造技术已经传播到现代威尼斯和奥地利的霍尔。

2. Development stage of glass manufacturing technology


Early stage
The influence of Syrians on the development of glass manufacturing technology cannot be underestimated. As early as around 200 BC, Sidon’s Syrian craftsmen invented the technique of blowing glass from iron pipes, making it possible to produce thin-walled containers of various shapes. This is the early stage of glass manufacturing technology – - Blowing technology (Fig. 1): The glass blower draws the glass liquid from the end of a hollow iron rod with a length of about 1.5 m and blows it into a thin-walled container. Compared with the previous casting method, glass has a significant improvement in thickness and light transmission.

In the 8th century AD, Syria’s rotating disk production proved to have played an extremely important role in the development of the northern glass manufacturing industry. Around 1000 AD, the Venetian people have used the rotating method to produce uneven-thick flat glass. The Nordic producers perfectly integrated the two kinds of blowing and spinning technologies and established a considerable scale of glass industry. This creation ushered in the era of Gothic architecture.



Industrialization period
In the nineteenth century, in the European period of industrialization, glass production made important progress in all fields:
a. In 1839, the Chance brothers successfully improved the cutting, grinding and polishing of the blown cylindrical glass, improved the surface polishing process, reduced the glass breakage, and improved the production efficiency, so as to be short in 1850 to 1851. A large number of flat glass for the construction of the Crystal Palace in the UK in a few months;
b. In 1856 Friedrich Siemens improved the patent of the furnace, making the operation flow more reasonable and the fuel halved, and the glass price dropped significantly;

c. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, John H. Lubbers of the United States developed a mechanical process that combines the two methods of blowing and drawing to produce 12 meters in length and diameter. 800mm glass.


二十世纪
1902年埃米尔·弗克(EmileFourcault)成功发明了将玻璃熔融物直接拉延的工艺(垂直法),出现了机器生产光亮的玻璃板;
1906年利比·欧文斯(LibbeyOwens)发明了水平法玻璃生产工艺:缓慢地用一个抛光的镍合金辊轴把玻璃熔液牵引成一个水平的平面,在一个60米长的冷却槽内冷却至手能触及的温度,然后按尺寸切割。这为拉伸法浮法玻璃的生产提供了重要的理论和实践基础。
玻璃在建筑中得到大量的应用,与20世纪中叶两个基本前提有密切关系:
前提一:法国圣戈班(Saint-Gobain)公司利用爱德华·贝内迪克特斯(EdwardBenediktys)于1909年获得的专利制造夹胶玻璃;以及从1929年就开始实践的,利用预压玻璃方法形成坚韧的安全玻璃。
前提二:1955年阿拉斯泰尔·皮尔金顿(AlastairPikington)爵士发明了浮法工艺:利用熔融玻璃液漂浮在锡液表面上形成平整的玻璃板。这种方法对制造优质大规格玻璃是革命性的。
2.玻璃制造技术发展阶段

早期阶段
叙利亚人对玻璃制造技术发展的影响不能被低估。早在公元前200年左右,西顿(Sidon)的叙利亚工匠们发明了用铁管吹制玻璃的技术,使生产各种不同形状的薄壁容器成为可能,这就是玻璃制造技术早期发展阶段---吹制技术(图1):玻璃吹制工在长度为1.5m左右的空心铁棒杆子未端蘸取玻璃液,然后把它吹成一个薄壁容器。相较于之前的铸制拉延法,玻璃在厚度、透光上都有显著的进步。
公元8世纪,叙利亚的旋转制盘术被证明对北方玻璃制造业的发展起过极其重要的作用。在公元1000年左右,威尼斯人已经会用旋转法制作厚薄不均的平板玻璃,北欧的制作者们将吹制法和旋转法这两种技术完美的加以统一,建立了相当规模的玻璃工业,这一创造迎来了哥特式建筑时代。
工业化时期
十九世纪,在工业化时期的欧洲,玻璃生产在所有领域都取得了重要进步:
a.1839年钱斯(Chance)兄弟成功改进了吹制圆柱玻璃的切割、打磨和抛光,同时改进了表面抛光工艺,降低了玻璃断裂度,提高了生产效率,才能在1850~1851年短短几个月为英国水晶宫(CrystalPalace)的建造提供大量平板玻璃;
b.1856年弗雷德里克·西门子(FriedrichSiemens)改进了熔炉专利,使操作流程更加合理及燃料减半,玻璃价格大幅下降;
c.19世纪末20世纪初,美国约翰·H·吕贝尔斯(John·H·Lubbers)研究出一种机械工艺,将吹制和拉延两种方法结合起来,能生产出12米长,直径800mm的玻璃。
20th century
In 1902, Emile Fourcault succeeded in inventing a process (vertical method) for directly drawing a glass melt, and the appearance of a machine producing a bright glass plate;
In 1906, Libbey Owens invented the horizontal glass production process: slowly using a polished nickel alloy roller to pull the glass melt into a horizontal plane and cool it to a hand in a 60-meter-long cooling trough The temperature that can be reached, then cut to size. This provides an important theoretical and practical basis for the production of stretch float glass.
Glass is used in a large number of buildings and is closely related to the two basic conditions in the middle of the 20th century:
Premise I: Saint-Gobain, France, used patents obtained by Edward Benediktys in 1909 to manufacture laminated glass; and since 1929, it has been practiced using pre-pressed glass methods to form tough Safety glass.
Premise 2: In 1955, Sir Alastair Pikington invented the float process: the molten glass floats on the surface of the tin liquid to form a flat glass plate. This method is revolutionary in manufacturing high-quality large-size glass.
Milan cathedral 米兰大教堂
3. Important stages of development of glass applications
Archaeological discoveries show that for the first time, glass was applied to building envelopes in Roman villas and public bathrooms in Pompei and Herculaneum. Some of these glass panels are frameless, and some are placed in steel frames or wooden frames. The dimensions are approximately 300 mm x 500 mm and the thickness is between 30 and 60 mm. These windows were produced by casting using a glass panel: the viscous liquid was first poured onto a framed table topped with sand, and then stretched using a hook.
Gothic architecture period
The period of Nordic Gothic architecture was the first real era of glass architecture. The most obvious architectural style was the towering spires and the huge glass paintings on the windows. The Cathedral of Christ was the representative of Gothic architecture. 2). Gothic architecture has a more unified basic features: stone frame, buttress, vault and stained glass. In Gothic architecture, there are only pressures in the stone framework, and the situation of material tension rarely occurs; domes and buttresses give people new feelings about the annular space; huge glass windows are all assembled, small pieces of Glass sashes made of metal combine them to form a stained glass wall. The sun shines through the window's stained glass into the house, which is sacred and beautiful. The glass window becomes a filter between the inside and the outside, God and man. The window glass creates a mystical and splendid view of the interior of the church, which changes the feeling of boring and depressed building due to lack of lighting, and expresses people's inner ideals of yearning for heaven.
Church window 教堂花窗
Locke construction period
Baroque architecture is concerned with the rhythm of space and vivid images and can be extended to infinity. Light plays a very special role in this regard. The bright sunlight that enters through the openings of the spacious windows and doors replaced the mysterious light sources scattered in the Gothic church. Light not only creates space, but also serves as a means to cancel the boundaries of space. Space has lost its material characteristics: it has removed space restrictions, used to separate internal and external thick walls disappearing into the background, and the walls have become large continuous metal frames that integrate buildings with nature, interior and exterior . These results show that Baroque architecture will gain more and more significance. The increasing trend of open architecture will lead to a huge demand for glass will inevitably promote the progress of glass manufacturing technology.
It is worth noting that, during the British Tudor building, the architects of the Hardwick office (pictured) and the Worksop architecture (pictured) designed by architect Robert Smithson were the first to have more glass than walls. "The building" has a very high proportion of windows on the façade of the building. Most of the main façade is made up of huge glass windows. The huge glass windows are divided into several pieces by light stone windows. The glazing profiles are both flat and curved, and most glazings do not have visible support members.​
3.玻璃应用建筑的重要发展阶段
考古发现,在罗马时代的庞培(Pompei)和赫库兰尼姆(Herculaneum)两地的别墅和公共浴室,首次将玻璃应用到建筑的围护结构中。这些玻璃面板有些无框,有些放置在钢框或木框里,规格大致为300mm×500mm,厚度在30~60mm之间。这些窗户用玻璃面板采用铸制拉延法生产:将粘稠的玻璃液先泼到装有沙子的框架桌面上,然后用铁钩拉延伸展。
哥特式建筑时期
北欧哥特式建筑时期是第一个真正意义上的玻璃建筑时代,最明显的建筑风格就是高耸入云的尖顶及窗户上巨大斑斓的玻璃画,基督大教堂是哥特式建筑的代表(图2)。哥特式建筑都具有较为统一的基本特征:石头框架、扶壁、拱顶和彩色玻璃。在哥特式建筑中,石头框架只存在压力,材料受拉情况很少出现;拱顶和扶壁带给人们对于环形空间的全新感受;巨大的玻璃窗子全是装配而成的,小块的玻璃靠金属制成的框格将他们组合在一起,形成一面彩色玻璃墙。阳光透过窗户的彩色玻璃射入屋内,显得神圣而美丽,玻璃窗成为内部与外部、上帝与人的过滤器。花窗玻璃造就了教堂内部神秘灿烂的景象,从而改变了建筑因采光不足而沉闷压抑的感觉,并表达了人们向往天国的内心理想。
San Carlo Church with its spacious windows 圣卡罗教堂及其宽敞的窗户

洛克式建筑时期

巴洛克式建筑所关注的是空间的韵律和生动的画面并可将其扩展至无限,光在这方面起了一个十分特殊的作用。透过宽敞的窗户和门的开口进入的明亮太阳光取代了哥特式教堂内分散的神秘光源,光不但产生空间,还成为取消空间界限的手段。空间失去了它的物质特征:取消了空间的限制,用于分隔内部与外部厚重墙壁消失在背景中,墙壁变成了大的连续的金属框架,使建筑物与自然、内部与外部融为一体。这些结果表明巴洛克式建筑将会获得越来越重大的意义,开放式建筑的日益增加的趋势会导致对玻璃的巨大需求必然会促进玻璃制造技术的进步。

值得特别说明的是,在英国都铎建筑时期,建筑师罗伯特·史密斯松设计的哈德维克办公厅(图)和沃克索普宅邸建筑(图),是首个“玻璃比墙还多的建筑”:建筑立面上布置了比率极高的窗子,主立面大部分都是巨大的玻璃窗组成,巨大的玻璃窗被轻便的石头窗棂分成若干块。玻璃窗外形既有平面的也有曲面的,而且大部分玻璃窗并没有可见的支撑构件。


Hardwick Office 哈德维克办公厅
Worksore House 沃克索普宅邸
Greenhouse construction period
The development of greenhouse construction lasted from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century. It occupied an important position in the history of architectural development. It does not have any traces of Greek architecture or Gothic architecture. Lawton's Encyclopedia of Cottages, Farms, and Villa Buildings, published in 1832, describes the key elements of greenhouse architectural design principles as follows: In addition to the ordinary wrought iron slats, there are no other masters in the greenhouse. The second beam reinforces the roof. Before the glass is installed, a slight breeze shakes the whole structure from head to foot. Once the glass is installed, the entire building becomes strong enough. From this it can be seen that the seemingly fragile transparent glass panel is actually an important force element that enhances the rigidity and stability of the entire structure.
In the history of architecture development, the Crystal Palace (Cystal Palace), designed by Joseph Paxton and built in Hyde Park in London in 1851, occupies a central position, showing the advanced thinking of architectural forms and styles.
British Crystal Palace 英国水晶宫
温室建筑时期
温室建筑的发展从16世纪末延续到19世纪中叶,在建筑发展的历史中占据着重要地位,它没有任何希腊式建筑或者哥特式建筑的痕迹。劳顿(Lawton)在1832年出版的《村舍、农庄和别墅建筑百科全书》对温室建筑设计原理的关键内容作了如下描述:温室上除了普通的熟铁窗格条以外,没有任何其它的主、次梁来加固屋顶,在安装玻璃以前,一丝微风都会整个结构从头到脚的晃动起来,一旦装上了玻璃,整个建筑就会变得足够坚固了。由此看出:看似易碎的透明玻璃面板实际上重要的受力原件,它加强了整个结构的刚度和稳定性。
在建筑发展历史中,由约瑟夫·帕克斯顿设计、于1851年建于伦敦海德公园的博览会建筑---英国水晶宫(CystalPalace)占据了中心地位,显示了建筑形式和风格上的超前思想。
Enlightenment Application of Industrial or Commercial Buildings
Since the mid-19th century, commercial arcades have become increasingly popular: it does not have the interior of a glass-roofed building, it is actually a shaded interior street, and along both sides of the street are the commercial facades of real buildings. A glass roof made of a wonderful combination of glass and steel protects people from wind and rain. Vittorio Emanuele II, designed and built by Giuseppe Mengoni in 1861 between 1865 and 1877, was the ancestor of the modern sealed glass shopping center. Fig. 9), which was designed using popular shopping malls in the 19th century. The top is covered with arched glass and cast iron roofs. The corridors of two glass domes meet in the octagonal space in the middle.
Vittorio Manuele II Corridor 维多利奥·玛努埃莱二世街廊
工(商)业建筑的启蒙式应用
从19世纪中期开始,商业街廊逐渐流行起来:它并不具有玻璃屋顶的建筑内部,实际上是有遮蔽的内部街道,沿着街道两边是真正建筑的商业门面。玻璃和钢铁的绝妙组合而成的玻璃屋顶可以保护人们免受风雨的侵袭。由朱塞佩·门戈尼(GiuseppeMengoni)于1861年设计、修建于1865年到1877年之间的维多利奥·玛努埃莱二世街廊(VittorioEmanueleⅡ)是现代密封玻璃购物中心的先祖(图9),它采用19世纪流行的商场设计,顶部覆盖着拱形的玻璃和铸铁屋顶,两条玻璃拱顶的走廊交汇于中部的八角形空间。